剑桥明代史笔记

他的女婿欧阳伦只不过因为一件比较小的犯法行为——包括私贩茶叶——而被他下令自尽。

人的精力是有限的,权利也是有范围的!

皇帝相信,这一解决乡里争端的制度是切实可行的,而且也可以相对地免除一些弊病。

在建文帝继任者在位的时期,朝廷史官关于建文帝的行事写了一些歪曲真象的、极尽批判之能事的报道,想以此证明永乐帝夺权是有理由的。

他腼腆,且又毫无国政经验;且不说和他的前皇祖考相比,甚至比起他的雄才大略的叔父们,他也没有那种自信心和坚强的性格,甚至没有那种能力。这位年轻皇帝的温顺性格和儒家风范,使得他真正关心他祖父的高压行政措施对平民百姓的影响,因此他衷心向往的是实行理想的仁政。

他们是黄子澄、齐泰和方孝孺。这几位老者对建文帝关于君之为君的概念起了强有力的作用。

这三位儒家学者以各自不同的方式影响皇帝。黄子澄和齐泰变成了皇帝的心腹,用儒家的修齐治平理论教育他。

方孝孺是《周礼》——一部关于乌托邦式政府的经典著作——专家,他发觉他所看到的是个人专制统治的缺点,因此他建议皇帝应该根据古代经典所提出的理想和形式来实行仁政。

它们都是有目的的变革,意在搞一套新的建制,使权力归到皇帝信任的顾问的名下,加强文官之治,以削弱将军们和皇子们的权势。

宣德年间宦官的崛起是以前行政发展的结果。

蒙古人与明朝建立关系的主要目的不再是去征服世界,而完全是为了生存和巩固脆弱的草原经济。

它不如说是一种古老的中国传统造成的结果,这种传统的根子是国家的农业结构;也不如说是特殊类型的军队——农民军队——造成的结果,

有无限权力的天朝统治者为了分享不应有的利益,竟助长自己的官员集团的堕落,这是明代政府明显的反常现象之一。

它们说明到成化和弘治两个时期,宦官的编制已经发展到帝国政府中全部有品位的文官官职的数字,而且很快就超过了这个数字。

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《剑桥明代史笔记》有21个想法

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